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Full text of "Displaced persons in Cyprus: report of a Special Study Mission to Cyprus"

yy. -J v 7/ 1 < 



94th Congre 
2d Session 



ess 1 



COMMITTEE PRINT 



7 *- /3,^r 



DISPLACED PERSONS IX CYPRUS 



RE 




SPECIAL ^TO 
TOC 



COMMITTEE OX THE JUDICIARY 

HOUSE OP REPRESENTATIVES 

NINETY-FOURTH CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 




NOVEMBER 1976 



77-949 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
WASHINGTON : 1976 



COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY 



PETER W. RODINO, Jr. 
JACK BROOKS, Texas 
ROBERT W. KASTENMEIER, Wisconsin 
DON EDWARDS, California 
WILLIAM L. HUNGATE, Missouri 
JOHN CONYERS, Jr., Michigan 
JOSHUA EILBERG, Pennsylvania 
WALTER FLOWERS, Alabama 
JAMES R. MANN, South Carolina 
PAUL S. SARBANES, Maryland 
JOHN F. SEIBERLING, Ohio 
GEORGE E. DANIELSON, California 
ROBERT F. DRINAN, Massachusetts 
BARBARA JORDAN, Texas 
ELIZABETH HOLTZMAN, New York 
EDWARD MEZVINSKY, Iowa 
HERMAN BADILLO, New York 
ROMANO L. MAZZOLI, Kentucky 
EDWARD W. PATTISON, New York 
CHRISTOPHER J. DODD, Connecticut 
WILLIAM J. HUGHES, New Jersey 
SAM B. HALL, Jr., Texas 



, New Jersey, Chairman 
EDWARD HUTCHINSON, Michigan 
ROBERT McCLORY, Illinois 
TOM RAILSBACK, Illinois 
CHARLES E. WIGGINS, California 
HAMILTON FISH, Jr., New York 
M. CALDWELL BUTLER, Virginia 
WILLIAM S. COHEN, Maine 
CARLOS J. MOORHEAD, California 
JOHN M. ASIIBROOK, Ohio 
HENRY J. HYDE, Illinois 
THOMAS N. KINDNESS, Ohio 



Earl C. Dudley, Jr., General Counsel 
Garner J. Cline, Staff Director 

Herbert Fdchs, Counsel 

William P. Shattuck, Counsel 

Alan A. Parker, Counsel 

Maurice A. Barboza, Counsel 

Thomas W. Hutchison, Counsel 

Arthur P. Endres, Jr., Counsel 

Daniel L. Cohen, Counsel 

Franklin G. Polk, Counsel 

Thomas E. Mooney, Counsd 

Alexander B. Cook, Counsel 

Alan F. Coffey, Jr., Counsel 

Ki:.\m:iii N. Ki.i:i:. Counsel 

Raymond V. Smietanka, Counsel 

Thomas M. BOTD, Counsel 



(II) 



FOREWORD 

In my role as Chairman of the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citi- 
zenship, and International Law, which has general jurisdiction over 
refugee matters, I have been deeply concerned over the tragic conse- 
quences of the hostilities which occurred in Cyprus in the summer of 
1^74. 

Serious humanitarian problems resulted from that conflict and it is 
apparent that they will not be fully resolved until a just and peaceful 
solution to the Cyprus issue is reached. 

More specifically, the plight of some 200.000 persons displaced by 
military hostilities has not been satisfactorily resolved and little prog- 
ress can be expected until there are "good faith" negotiations regard- 
ing the issues of territorial readjustment, resettlement and sovereignty. 

Because of my concern, and in order to discharge the oversight re- 
sponsibilities of my subcommittee with regard to refugee problems, 
I travelled to Cyprus on May 12, 1976, after participating in the delib- 
erations of the Executive Committee meeting of the Intergovernmental 
Committee for European Migration (ICEM) in Geneva, Switzerland. 

My visit was followed one week later by that of the Honorable 
Robert McClory, who spent several days reviewing all aspects of the 
Cyprus problem. Representative McClory's valuable report, which 
gives a keen insight into this complex problem, is set forth in its en- 
tirety in this committee print. 

In addition, at my direction, the subcommittee staff made an investi- 
gative trip to Cyprus in November of last year in order to obtain a 
first-hand view of the situation. 

During each of these study trips, there were extensive meetings and 
discussions with: William B. Crawford, U.S. Ambassador to Cyprus 
and other U.S. Embassy officials ; representatives of the U.N. High 
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) ; representatives of the United 
Nation's Forces in Cyprus (UNFICYP) ; officials of the Interna- 
tional Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) ; and officials of both the 
Government of Cyprus and the Turkish authorities. 

In particular, I had the opportunity of meeting with the following 
individuals during my brief visit : Mr. K. Lyonette, Acting Chief of 
Mission, UNHCR; Archbishop Makarios, President of Cyprus, the 
Israeli Ambassador to Cyprus as well as the U.S. Ambassador and 
his staff. 

A detailed listing of the meetings held by, and activities of, Repre- 
sentative McClory can be found later in his report. 

The subcommittee staff met with the following individuals during 
their earlier visit: Roman Kohaut, UNHCR. Chief of Mission: R. 
Hoffman, ICRC, Chief of Mission, and Alain Lenartz, Deputy Chief; 
Osman Orek, Minister of Defense, Government of Cyprus (Vice- 
President and Minister of Defense of the Turkish Authorities) ; 

(in) 



IV 



George Pelaghias, Director General, Ministry of Foreign Affairs: and 
Achillcas Kallimachos, Acting Director, Special Services for the Care 
and Rehabilitation of Refugees. Ministry of Labor, Government of 
Cyprus; and Petros Paris, Camp Director, Nicosia Stavros Refugee 
Camp. 

In addition to these formal meetings and discussions. Representa- 
tive McClory and I. as well as my staff, observed and inspected various 
refugee camps, housing projects and villages which were either aban- 
doned or destroyed during the hostilities. We also took this oppor- 
tunity to speak with many persons who resided in the temporary "tent 
camps' 3 which were established. During the trips, interviews were con- 
ducted with public officials and private citizens in both the Turkish- 
occupied and government-controlled areas. 

It is my hope that this report, based on our field investigation of 
this difficult problem, will be of value to the Members of the Judiciary 
Committee and will assist them in the exercise of their legislative re- 
sponsibilities regarding this subject. 

Joshua Eilberg, 
Chairman, Subcommittee on Immigration. 
Oitii ' . and Intt i national L 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Foreword iii 

Introduction 1 

I. Background information 3 

II. International relief efforts 5 

A. United Nations Peacekeeping Force on Cyprus (UNFICYP) 5 

B. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) 5 

C. International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) 7 

D. Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM)__ 7 
III. Relief efforts — Government of Cyprus 8 

IV. U.S. relief efforts 9 

V. Problem areas : 

A. UNHCR's role in Cyprus 11 

B. Greek Cypriots in Turkish-controlled area 11 

C. Colonization and Turkish troops 12 

VI. Report of Hon. Robert McClory, M.C 13 

(V) 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/displarsonsOOunit 



INTRODUCTION 

The July 1974 conflict in Cyprus had a devastating impact on the 
people and economy of that country. It produced massive population 
shifts and resulted in a "de facto" partitioning of the country, with 
a Turkish-occupied area in the North comprising 40 percent of the 
land area of the entire island. 

Thousands of families were uprooted by the hostilities and almost 
one-half of the total population intially required some form of relief 
assistance. Those in need included: Greek Cypriots displaced to the 
South ; Greek Cypriots remaining in the North ; and Turkish Cypriots 
remaining in the South and to a much lesser degree Turkish Cypriots 
displaced to the North. The primary concerns of these displaced and 
needy persons at that time were to obtain adequate food, shelter, medi- 
cines, and other necessities of life. 

The international community and the United States immediately 
responded to these needs and the International Committee of the Red 
Cross became operative in Cyprus in August 1974 to provide relief 
assistance and to protect the civilian population. 

This report will focus on these human consequences of the Cyprus 
crisis, and will briefly discuss some of the social, political, and economic 
problems stemming from the 1974 hostilities in that country. 

It will also assess the changing needs of the Cypriots with the pas- 
sage of time and examine the programs of humanitarian assistance 
which have been established for the Cypriot refugees. 

(1) ' . 



Background Information 

The sequence of events which led to the current situation in Cyprus 
is well known and consequently will not be recited in detail in this 
report. 

Suffice it to say that the coup d'etat by the Greek National Guard 
and the subsequent Turkish military intervention had a devastating 
effect on the lives of the Cypriot people and on the economy of that 
island. 

Since July 1974, the Turkish authorities have occupied and main- 
tained control over the northern portion of the island, with the asssist- 
ance of Turkish military forces, ranging from a maximum of 40,000 
to approximately 28,000 today. 

As a result of the Turkish invasion, a substantial percentage of 
Greek Oypriots living in the North, particularly in the Kyrenia area, 
were displaced from their homes and fled or were transported to gov- 
ernment-controlled areas in the South. 'While most were able to find 
refuse in the homes of relatives and friends, many thousands were 
unable to locate suitable shelter, as of November 1975. the number of 
people residing in temporary tent camps was about 17,800. In fact it 
was estimated that initially there were approximately 200.000 Cypriots 
who were in need of food, shelter, medicine and other essentials of life. 
It became clear that the Government of Cyprus was unable to provide 
the necessary assistance. 

The flow of displaced and needy persons (Greek Cypriots to the 
government-controlled area in the South and Turkish Cypriots to 
the Turkish-occupied area in the North) continued at a high level for 
many months and at the time of the subcommittee staff's visit in 
November 1975 the estimated refugee breakdown was as follows: 

Greek Cypriots : 

Persons displaced in the south 183. 100 

Of which receiving assistance 139, 600 

Persons not displaced but needy in south 14. 300 

Persons in the north receiving assistance 10, 100 

By Housing : 

Living in tents 17. 800 

Living in shacks 7,700 

Turkish Cypriots receiving assistance in the south 42 

Turkish Cypriots receiving assistance in the north 40,100 

Despite resource limitations, the Government of Cyprus undertook 
immediate relief efforts and did a commendable job in providing food 
supplies, temporary housing, water and medical facilities. It soon be- 
came apparent, however, that international assistance on a large scale 
would be required. Consequently, shortly after the invasion, the U.N. 
peace-keeping force (UNFICYP) and the International Committee 
of the Rod Cross (TCRC) joined in the effort to respond to the hu- 
manitarian needs of the Cypriot people. 

(3) 

77-949—77 2 



One month later, on August 20, the U.X. High Commissioner for 
Refugee (UNHCR), in response to appeals by the Government of 
Cyprus, was designated by U.X. Secretary General Kurt Waldheim 
to' coordinate U.X. humanitarian assistance for Cyprus. 

In addition to the human tragedy on Cyprus, the turmoil and the 
"de facto" partition of the island caused severe economic problems for 
both the Greek and Turkish-Cypriot communities. While the Turkish 
authorities gained control of 40 percent of the territory, the Turkish- 
Cypriots comprised only 18 percent of the islands population of 650.- 
000 at the time of the invasion. As a result, there was an acuate short- 
age of manpower in the Turkish-controlled area. There were few who 
could successfully operate the factories, manage the hotels, or culti- 
vate and harvest the crops in the Xorth. The effect on tourism and 
agricultural production was therefore substantial. 

The government-controlled area, on the other hand, consisted of 
many acres of underdeveloped land, as well as rugged and mountain- 
ous terrain. As such it was not as economically productive as the land 
in the Northern portion of the Island. Because of the inability to 
absorb the vast influx of displaced Greek Cypriots from the Xorth, 
severe unemployment resulted and many departed from the Island 
in search of temporary employment. There was also a serious short- 
age of produce and dairy products in the South which made it difficult 
to provide adequate food supplies for the Greek Cypriot refugee 
population. 

This critical economic situation continues. However, the importa- 
tion of workers from mainland Turkey (a subject which will be dis- 
cussed later in this report) and various reforestation projects in the 
Xorth as well as increased cultivation and industrial projects in the 
South, have somewhat alleviated the economic difficulties in both 
areas. 

Further, housing was not a significant problem in the Turkish zone, 
since the Turkish Cypriots were able to occupy the homes of the Greek 
Cvpriots who fled to the South. On the other hand, the provision of 
adequate shelter for the homeless Greek Cypriots in the South became 
an extremely serious problem due to the larger numbers involve*! and 
the official and personal reluctance to occupy those homes which had 
h^en abandoned by the Turkish Cypriots. There were several possible 
rontons r or this initial reluctance: (1) fear of retribution in the event 
of n Turkish takeover of the Tsland: (2> occupation of Turkish 
Cypriot homes could be interpreted as an official recognition that nar- 
+ition was inevitable or as an indication that ethnic Greeks would not 
turning to their homes in the Xorth: and (3) because of the sub- 
standard condition of many of these abandoned residences the Greek 
^Vnriots in temporary refnge camps preferred to await the construc- 
tion of new permanent housing. 

The eeonomie nnd human consequences of the Cyprus conflict have 
been a continuing concern of the ntemational eomnrnnity and concern 
particular of the United States Government. The remainder of 
this report, will detail the relief efforts which were mounted to respond 
to this trarrdv and will discuss the progress which has been made in 
ameliorating the plight of the Cypriot people. 



II 

International Relief Efforts 
a. united nations peacekeeping force on cyprus (unficyp) 

In 1964 the UN Security Council created UNFICYP to act as a 
peacekeeping force in Cyprus and to maintain a climate which would 
be conducive to establishing a lasting peace in that country. 

In order to maintain UNFICYP, approximately $27 million is 
required annually and the U.S. contribution to these forces has been 
substantial. 

Following the July 1974 conflict in Cyprus, UN Secretary General 
Waldheim appealed for increased contributions to UNFICYP which 
was required to expand the size of the force in order to respond to the 
situation. At the time of staff's trip to Cyprus in November 1975, 
there were approximately 3,000 persons serving UNFICYP composed 
of troops from Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, 
Sweden, and the United Kingdom. The U.S. contribution to 
UNFICYP in fiscal year 1975 was $9.6 million. In addition to its 
routine activities of maintaining peace and insuring the security of 
the civilian population on Cyprus, UNFICYP also delivered food 
and relief commodities to the Turkish and Greek Cypriots and assisted 
both the UNHCE and ICRC in providing various forms of humani- 
tarian relief assistance (i.e. evacuating the sick, pregnant and aged, in 
both zones; providing medical evacuation services). In addition, 
UNFICYP currently patrols a neutral area or buffer zone commonly 
called the "green line" between the Turkish-occupied and government- 
controlled sections of the Island. 

B. UNITED NATIONS HIGH COMMISSIONER FOR REFUGEES (UNHCR) 

As noted previously in this report, UN Secretary General Waldheim 
requested^ the UNHCR on August 20 to assume responsibility for 
coordinating UN humanitarian assistance in Cyprus. On August 22 
the UNHCR traveled to Cyprus to assess the situation and issued an 
appeal on September 6 to the international community for contribu- 
tions. At that time it was estimated that approximately $22 million 
would be required to provide the necessary assistance for the remain- 
der of calendar year 1974. The financial contributions provided by 
more than 40 governments in response to that appeal (both in cash 
and in kind) amounted to approximately $24.5 million, of which the 
U.S. donated $7.8 million. These funds were used to provide the fol- 
lowing-types of relief assistance: emergency accommodations, food 
supplies; transportation; domestic and community equipment; and 
program support and contingency reserve. 

A second appeal was issued in January 1975 for $9.3 million for 
food and medical supplies, and other relief programs in both the 
Turkish-occupied area and the government-controlled area. The period 
covered by this appeal was January to April 1975. Once again the 
United States contributed one-third to the total amount requested in 
the appeal — $3.1 million. 



6 

It should be noted that the FXHCR is not functioning in its tradi- 
tional role in Cyprus since relief assistance is being provided to "dis- 
placed persons" rather than "refugees'- as defined in the UNHCR 
mandate. Nevertheless, at the personal request of the TJX Secretary 
General, this mandate was expanded in order to respond to the crisis, 
and all concerned parties on Cyprus have on several occasions re- 
quested the UNHCR to maintain a presence on the island beyond the 
original termination date. Another important distinction is* the fact 
that the UNHCR's activities now include economic development 
rather than emergency, short-term relief and rehabilitation assistance. 

As a result, the UNHCR's role on Cyprus has been reassessed on 
several occasions. Nevertheless the U.N. Secretary General has agreed 
that the UNHCR should continue to channel international assistance 
in Cyprus for the time being because of the requests which have been 
made repeatedly by all interested parties. 

Discussions with UNHCR officials, revealed that some international 
organization would be required to provide continuing assistance in 
Cyprus but questions were raised as to whether the UNHCR should 
be involved in providing long-term economic and developmental 
assistance. 

According to UNHCR officials, funds are distributed based on the 
following criteria: (1) the number of those in need; and (2) the 
nature and extent of their needs. In other words, allocations are not 
made solely on the basis of the refugee population or population 
ratios, but rather on the basis of a flexible distribution formula. Ex- 
penditures are authorized only after agreement is reached with both 
the Turkish authorities and the Government of Cyprus. In summary, 
both the UNHCR and the ICRC operate in a non-politiral fashion 
and attempt to provide relief on the basis of "need" rather than allo- 
cating such an aid according to a predetermined ratio of the Turkish 
Cypriot and Greek population. 

During a meeting with Roman Kohaut, UNHCR Chief of Mission, 
the following categories of relief recipients were described: 1) dis- 
placed persons; 2) persons not displaced but in need; and 3) those 
residing in the north. 

One of the issues that has been actively discussed is whether relief 
nssistance should also be provided to those persons who were displaced 
or disadvantaged by events which occurred in Cyprus in 1963 and 1001. 
The Turkish authorities have consistently maintained that such indi- 
viduals should also be eligible for aid on the grounds that it is illogi- 
cal to restrict assistance solely to those who were affected by the 1974 
hostilities. Despite this constant criticisms, the Turkish authorities 
have acquiesced ill the manner in which relief funds have been allo- 
cated to the Turkish and Greek Cypriot communities on the basis of 
displacements resulting from the 1971 hostilities. 

The future role of the (JNHCB in Cyprus is now in question, but 
there is little likelihood thai then will Be a long-term presence of the 
T'XHCR in Cyprus because the UNTICR's normal function is to re- 
spond to emergency situations. Some have questioned the propriety of 
ihf^ UNTICR's current operation in Cyprus and have argued for a 



phasing-out of its activities. Nevertheless, all are agreed that some 
organization should continue to channel humanitarian assistance 
from the international community and there is ample justification for 
continuing to "internationalize" such assistance to both the Greek 
Cypriots and the Turkish Cypriots 

C. INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE OF THE RED CROSS (ICRC) 

The primary concerns of the ICRC in Cyprus have been : treatment 
of detainees; protection of civilians; tracing missing persons; and 
other humanitarian matters such as providing food, shelter, and medi- 
cal assistance. 

The ICRC was the first international organization to respond to 
the humanitarian problems in Cyprus and despite the later designa- 
tion of the UXHCR as the prime coordinator of UN relief activities, 
the ICRC continued to provide food and medical supplies in order to 
supplement the UXHCR's relief program. 

Over the last year ICRC has attempted to phase out its initial 
relief activities and at the beginning of this year it was only handling 
humanitarian cases rather than operating general relief programs. In 
fact, at the time of the staff's visit, ICRC was no longer an operational 
organization but was essentially providing "moral security" to the 
international relief programs which had been established. It was indi- 
cated that ICRC would continue to consider some of the problems con- 
fronting Greek Cypriots who remained in the north such as the avail- 
ability of education and medical services. According to ICRC 
officials, no problems were encountered in obtaining suitable access to 
the Greek Cypriots in the north, and this position was also shared by 
the UNHCR officials who were interviewed. 

As mentioned earlier, one of the primary responsibilities of ICRC 
shortly after the conflict was attempting to locate missing persons. The 
total number of persons who have not been located as a result of the 
conflict ranges between 1500 and 2000 and this represents one of the 
most tragic aspects of the 1974 hostilities. According to ICRC all leads 
in these cases have been exhausted. Likewise no precise statistics are 
available concerning the number of persons who died during the 1974 
conflict, but one official of the Government of Cyprus estimated the 
number to be about 5,000. 

It is indeed disturbing that more accurate data could not have been 
obtained on the dead and missing; but ICRC officials indicated that 
the chaos and confusion which followed the Turkish invasion of the 
island impeded the efforts of ICRC's Tracing Agency in securing 
better information. 

D. INTERGOVERNMENTAL COMMITTEE FOR EUROPEAN MIGRATION (ICEM) 

Practical relief efforts through emigration were also examined. It 
was learned that upon the initiative of the Cypriot government, a 
selective migration program to Latin America was established for 
Cypriots desiring to emigrate to that area. 



8 

. This was accomplished through the cooperation of the Intergovern- 
mental Committee for European Migration (ICEM), an international 
migration and refugee organization active in a number of emergency 
refugee situations over the past twenty years, which was initially 
established to assist the large number of displaced and distressed 
persons in Western Europe after World War II. Since that time, its 
programs functions and activities have been revised periodically to 
meet emergent refugee problems which have arisen around the world. 

In November 1975, an official of the Ministry of Interior of the 
Government of Cyprus was placed at the disposal of ICEM to recruit 
eligible and qualified applicants for this program which is designed to 
place, transport, and assist in the resettlement of Cypriot nationals. 

Experience has shown that the selective migration program to Latin 
America has proved extremely difficult to attract qualified applicants. 
Thus far. sixty applications representing 149 persons had been re- 
ceived. Of these, five Cypriots were moved to Argentina and ten cases 
are presently pending approval for Brazil. 

Although a tentative allocation of $200,000 had been included in 
U.S. Aid Funds administered through the United States Embassy, 
the Government of Cyprus did not approve the use of these funds for 
this purpose. Consequently, there are currently no United States funds 
involved in this migration program. However, it is anticipated that in 
the near future the Government of Cyprus will make available $200,- 
000 to ICEM for a loan program to assist Cypriot emigration. 

Canada and Australia have ongoing emigration programs in Cyprus 
(in which ICEM is participating) and an expansion of the Australia 
program is expected in the near future. 

Jvecently the Cyprus Government has officially requested ICEM to 

; in the resettlement of some 6,000 refugees from Lebanon for 

which the Government is now providing some care and maintenance. 

Emigration relief, although relatively minor when considering the 
overall Cypriot problem, can possibly be of greater benefit to the gov- 
ernment in the future. 

. In addition to interviewing the ICEM representative in Cyprus, 
Representative Eilberg and the subcommittee staff also discussed the 
subject with U.S. embassy officials and representatives of the ICEM 
Mission in Athens which has overall supervision of the Cyprus emi- 
gration program. 

1 ° in 

Relief Efforts — Government of Cyprus 

In addition to the aforementioned efforts by the international com- 
munity, the Government of Cyprus itself also made diligent efforts to 
respond to the crisis. Responsibility for all relief matters. was assigned 
ially-deeignated Director of al Services for Care and 

dilution of Refugees in August of 1974. Following the initial 
emergency phase, the relief efforts of the Government of Cyprus were 
Juated early in L975 and emphasis was then placed on employment 
tance and improvement of conditions at the refugee camps. 



In order to obtain an overview of the relief activities undertaken by 
the Government of Cyprus, meetings were held with representatives 
of the Ministries of Labor and Foreign Affairs of the Government of 
Cyprus. 

Mr. Achilles Kalimachos, the Acting Director of Special Services 
for Care and Rehabilitation of Refugees, indicated in November 1975 
that a major effort was under way to build permanent housing for 
displaced Greek Cypriots. Since the proposed housing was not prefab- 
ricated, substantial manpower would be required to construct these 
homes; thereby alleviating to some extent the severe unemployment 
problem in the south. 

Mr. Kalimachos indicated that his office employed some 200 persons 
who are working on various programs to provide shelter and food for 
the displaced Greek Cypriots. In addition to these programs his office 
was also responsible for developing and funding agricultural programs 
and reforestation projects, and for accomplishing in the various refu- 
gee camps and centers handicraft and cottage industries including em- 
broidery, weaving, woodcarving, leather, pottery and sewing. One of 
the most serious problems cited by Mr. Kalimachos was the lack of 
educational materials and school supplies for those children housed in 
temporary facilities. However, the primary problem confronting the 
Government of Cyprus in planning and developing adequate relief 
programs is the political uncertainty surrounding the Cyprus situation. 

This same uncertainty as well as the lengthy stay of some individ- 
uals in temporary tent camps has also had a most serious effect on the 
morale of many of the displaced Greek Cypriots, virtually all of whom 
have expressed the hope that they would one day be able to return to 
their homes in the North. 

While past programs have involved the provision of food, clothing, 
medical care, and educational services, new projects have been under- 
taken by the Government of Cyprus to create employment opportuni- 
ties and to bolster the Cypriot economy. 

IV 

U.S. Relief Efforts 

Most assistance which has been provided by foreign countries to 
distressed and displaced persons in Cyprus has been channeled through 
the various international relief agencies such as the UNHCR and 
ICRC. The U.S. government has also followed this general policy 
and has avoided any bilateral assistance. 

A provision contained in the "Foreign Assistance Act of 1974" made 
available $25 million of Famine or Disaster Relief Assistance funds 
for displaced persons in Cyprus. This entire sum was allocated 
through the international agencies as follows: $-j!().S million to the 
ITXHCR in response to his appeals to the international community, 
and $4.2 more to the ICRC. These funds along with about S; ; :> million 
contributed by other governments and private sources were intended 
to finance relief activities through early 1976. According to a report 



10 

entitled "Disaster Relief — Cyprus Civil Strife,*' issued l\y the Agency 
for International Development these U.S. funds were committed as 
follows : 

Through ICRC: 

Cash grants to ICRC $ 1,725,000 

Aid-in-kind consigned to ICRC 3, 493, 600 

Total through ICRC 4, 218. 600 

Through UNHCR: 

In support of the UNS YG's appeal for 1974 needs : 

Cash grants 7, 400, 000 

Aid-in-kind — 5,600 tent flys (including air trans- 
port) .T- 400, 000 

In support of appeal for first four months of 1975 : 

One-third of total $9.3 million appeal 3,100,000 

In support of continuing 1975 relief needs 9,872,105 

Other various support costs 9. 295 

Total through UNHCR 20, 781, 400 

Total U.S. Government Assistance 25, 000, 000 

In addition to the forms of relief described above, the U.S. contribu- 
tions to the UNHCR also helped to finance a refugee feeding pro- 
gram, some low cost housing for refugees, as well as reforestation and 
various small refugee welfare projects. The U.S. assistance channeled 
through ICRC was expended for emergency relief commodities and 
to enable ICRC to perform its various functions as the instrument of 
the Geneva Convention (i.e. protecting prisoners of war, tracing 
missing persons). 

On June 30, 1976, Congress authorized $30 million "for the relief 
and rehabilitation of refugees and other needy people in Cyprus" 
(P.L. 94-161. section 495). With the enactment of Public Law 94-329 
(section 402). this authorization was increased from $30 million to $40 
million. These funds will be used in order to provide project assistance 
through the UNHCR in the amount of approximately $21 million 
and the remainder will be used to provide: administrative budget 
port and food in the North (UNHCR); humanitarian program 
support (UXFICYIM : project development support (U.S. Em- 
bassy) : and reforestation equipment in the South. 

In short, the Congress and the US. government have responded 
generously to the humanitarian problems in Cyprus. Unfortunately, 
participation by other members <>f the international community 
decreased after the initial emergency period. Many countries, after 
reviewing the circumstances surrounding tlie Second Phase Assist- 
ance period (beginning in June lf>7r>) substantially reduced the 
amount of their cont ributi 



11 

V 

Problem Areas 

A. UXIICR's ROLE IX CYPRUS 

At the request of the U.N. Secretary General, as well as the Gov- 
ernment of Cyprus, and the Turkish authorities, the UNHCR has 
continued its humanitarian work in Cyprus. 

It must be recognized that the UNHCR's efforts are beyond the 
scope of its mandate and these activities are now funded to a large 
degree by the United States Government. 

There is serious concern on the part of many individuals that a 
"Palestinian refugee situation" is developing in Cyprus, and every 
effort should be made to prevent such an occurrence. 

If it is determined that long-term care and maintenance programs 
or rehabilitation projects are required, the U.N. should consider re- 
questing another international entity to assume those duties now being 
carried out by the UNHCR. 

In this regard, the current policy of "internationalizing" assistance 
should be maintained and bilateral programs, particularly insofar as 
the United States is concerned, should be avoided. It is conceivable 
that direct bilateral assistance could increase tension between the 
Turkish administration and the Cypriot government; thereby creat- 
ing an additional obstacle to a final political solution to the Cyprus 
problem. 

Recognizing that negotiations are currently deadlocked and that 
the UNHCR is normally involved (under its traditional mandate) 
with short-term, emergency relief programs, the international com- 
munity, with the assistance and cooperation of the Cypriot govern- 
ment and the Turkish authorities, must develop an alternative method 
for channeling international assistance to Cyprus. 

Whatever procedures are eventually developed, it is clear that relief 
assistance must continue to be distributed primarily on the basis of 
need and those programs which are established must be continuously 
reevaluated to reflect the changing needs and circumstances of the 
Cypriot people. 

B. GREEK CYPRIOTS IX TURKISII-COXTROLLED AREA 

Life has been extremely difficult for those Greek Cypriots who 
did not flee or who were not evacuated to the Government-controlled 
area in Southern Cyprus after the Turkish invasion. 

In the two years since the invasion numerous cases have been re- 
ported involving harassment, intimidation, deprivation of educational 
and medical services, restrictions on movement, and confinement to 
certain areas. 

There has also been severe criticism by Cypriot Government officials 
that the international relief agencies do not enjoy "free and unim- 
peded" access to Greek Cypriots living in the North. 



12 

UNHCK and ICRC officials denied that any ''access" problems 
exist, but they did indicate that claims relating to the education of 
Greek Cypriot children in the North and access to ethnic Greek medi- 
cal doctors were being carefully reviewed. 

Officials of the Cypriot Government referred to the provisions con- 
tained in the Vienna Agreement of August 2. 1975, which assured 
Greek Cypriote in the North that they would be given assistance in 
leading "a normal life, including facilities for education and for the 
practice of their religion as well as medical care by their own doctors 
and freedom of movement in the north". 

Specifically. Mr. George Pelaghias. Director General of the Ministry 
of Foreign AfFairs stated that the Vienna Agreement was not being 
property implemented and in view of the difficult conditions con- 
fronting Greek Cypriots in the North, he predicted last November 
that additional persons would be forced to relocate in the South. Since 
that time, some 2000 Greek Cypriots were expelled or have departed 
from the Turkish-occupied area. 

As a result, only about 8.000 currently reside in the North and it is 
essential that the Turkish authorities carry out their obligations under 
the Vienna Agreement, In addition, UNFICYP personnel must be 
given '-free and normal access to Greek Cypriot villages and habita- 
tions in the north", as promised in that agreement. 

C. COLONIZATION AND TURKISH TROOPS 

Two of the most sensitive and troublesome issues discussed during 
each of the field trips were: the influx of mainland Turks to, and the 
continued presence of several thousand Turkish troops in, the Turkish- 
occupied zone in northern Cyprus. 

Estimates as to the number of mainland Turks who have entered 
the island since the 1974 conflict have varied considerably. Independent 
sources indicated that between 10.000 and 15,000 Turks had immi- 
grated to Cyprus by the end of 1075, but it was unclear whether they 
were temporary workers or permanent immigrants. 

Officials of the Turkish authorities maintained that the importation 
of mainland Turks was necessary in order to cultivate and harvest the 
fields and to reactivate the economy in the North. Tn essence, they 
were characterized as temporary laborers, who were needed to nor- 
malize conditions in the North and to reduce the dependency on im- 
ported products, particularly food supplies. 

Cypriot Government officials, on the other hand, sharplv criticized 

the immigration of mainland Turks as an attempt by the Turkish 

tration: (^) to colonize the North: and (2) to en- 

ir negotiating positions by changing the population rntio on 

t '•" T iland. 

The continued presence of Turkish military forces on Cvprus has 
bIso I ruptive consequences on relations between the two sides. 

The 'i authorities maintained O^.^t such troop* were essential 

in insurinor the safety and security of t))o Turkish Cypriot popula- 
tion. The Greek Oypriot coirimunity firmly believes there is absolutely 
no justification for these troops to remain on tlm Island a^d thev cite 
for upporl the U.N. resolution which was adopted by tin- General Is- 



13 

sembly on November 20, 1975 by a vote of 117-1 (with 9 abstentions) 
demanding "the withdrawal without further delay of all foreign 
armed forces and foreign military presence and personnel from the 
Eepublic of Cyprus." 

It is evident that the problems of immigration and Turkish mili- 
tary forces in the North have increased intercommunal tension and 
according to one official of the Cyprus Government they will be a 
definite ''irritant" in any future negotiations. Moreover, these issues 
have seriously concerned the U.S. Congress and provisions concerning 
this subject were contained in the recently-enacted "International Se- 
curity Assistance and Arms Export Control Act of 1976." (P.L. 
94-329). 

Section 403 of that Act specifically relates aid to Turkey to the size 
of Turkey's "military forces" and "civilian population on Cyprus." 

It is clear that the Congress is strongly opposed to any actions by 
the Government of Turkey which would increase its military strength 
or expand its control in Cyprus. At the same time, many members of 
the Turkish- Cypriot community advised the study group that they 
feel secure under the existing situation and would vigorously resist 
any reduction in the civilian or military population in the North. 

There are, however, some indications that cultural differences be- 
tween the Turkish Cypriots and the mainland Turks in Cyprus could 
become a problem in the future. 



Report of Hon. Robert McClort, on Condition of Refugees in 

Cyprus 

My recent visit to Cyprus as a Member of the House Judiciary 
Committee served to fulfill a responsibility for refugees, which is an 
important part of the work of this committee. My brief stay in Cyprus 
(May 18-20) was preceded by numerous conferences in Washington 
with Garner J. Cline, Staff Director of the House Judiciary Com- 
mittee and Counsel for the Immigration Subcommittee, Lowell 
Laingen, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State, James Morton of the 
State Department's Cyprus Desk, and others. 

Many Greek Americans and several Greek C} T priot Americans have 
discussed the Cyprus problem (and our relations with Turkey) with 
me, including Dr. Nikos Panacos, President of the ^Vaukegnn, Illinois, 
Chapter of AHEPA, and Dr. Christopher Costis, Past President of 
the Illinois Chapter of the Congress of American-Hellenic 
Organizations. 

I had planned to accompany my Colleague, Congressman Joshua 
Eilberg of Pennsylvania, Chairman of the Immigration Subcom- 
mii toe. and Garner Cline. committee counsel to the regular meeting 
of the Intergovernmental Committee on European Migration (TCEM) 
in Geneva. Switzerland, on May 0-10, and then proceed to Cyprus. 
Other Committee work delayed my departure. 

Following Chairman Eilberg by about one week. I conferred first in 
Geneva with John Thomos, Director of ICEM, regarding that orga- 
nization's involvement in the Cvpriot refugee problems and was briefed 
on the activities of the U.N. High Commissioner on Refugee and the 



14 

services of the International Red Cross. Apart from the limited relief 
work performed in the Fall of 1974. ICEM's Cyprus role has been 
quite limited, principally because the President of Cyprus. Archbishop 
Makarios, refuses to acknowledge that the some 200.000 Greek Cypriots 
who fled or who were driven from Turkish-occupied Cyprus were 
refugees. Makarios takes the formal position that the Greek Cypriots 
are temporarily displaced persons waiting to return to their communi- 
ties which are being occupied illegally bv the Turkish military forces. 
Thomas lauded the humanitarian relief work being performed in 
Cyprus by the U.N.. including service to both Greek and Turkish 
Cypriots. His comments were confirmed by my later on-the-scene ob- 
servations, including: 

(a) U.N. relief and refugee assistance. 

(b) U.N. peacekeeping activities separating the two warring 
parties alone a cease-fire line extending across the island, and 

(c) The U.N. mediation or peace negotiation role. 

Later, in Nicosia, I met and discussed in some detail the U.N. activi- 
ties in Cyprus with the chief ILN. spokesman. George Yacoub. Also, I 
observed the U.N. peacekeeping forces from Finland, Sweden, Canada, 
and elsewhere, as well as their bases. On the road from Nicosia to Ky- 
renia. the armed Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot forces are sep- 
arated by less than 100 yards. But in between these armed enemies, the 
T T .N. personnel stand guard, respected by both sides, and maintaining 
a fragile, but increasingly durable, peace. 

I cannot help but express the highest praise for the multiple activi- 
ties of the United Nations in Cyprus. Tts activities provide the greatest 
assurances that acceptable solutions to the "Cyprus problem'' will be 
found. 

My escort officer throughout my Cypriot visit was Bruno Koshelcff, 
the Economic and Commercial Officer at the U.S. Embassy in Nicosia, 
a most knowledgeable and objective expert on the complex "Cyprus 



noblem, 



My principal interest being the refugee situation. T had occasion to 
visit a number of refugee camps in the areas of Larnaca, Nicosia, and 
Dhekelia (the British Sovereign Military Base). "While there are re- 
ported to have been some 200,000 Greek Cypriot refugees following 
the landing in July, 1974, of some 40,000 troops from Turkey, most of 
the Greek Cypriot refugees who were cared for previously in refugee 
(iimps have now been relocated in permanent homes. The fighting, 
looting, killing, and property damage in extensive areas of Cyprus 
have left serious sears from which the Cypriots will be able to recover 
only witli '/real difficulty and the passage of many years. 

I observed at least two large refugee camps which had been aban- 
doned, one of which is near Larnaca and trie other in the Dhekelia 
area. Only the electrical wires, toilet facilities and other remnants of 

large tent camps remained. Other camps, including the tent camp near 

Akhna. have been greatly reduced in size as refugees find more perma- 
nent lodging and employment in other parts of the Greek portion of 
( Jyprus, 

'The Large housing project at Axadhippou while not yet completed 

affords permanent homes for several thousand displaced Greek Cyp- 

re accommodated previously in tent-. This project was ti- 



15 

nanced primarily with U.S. AID funds administered through the 
United Nations. The development was executed by private Cypriot 
contractors, materialmen and building tradesmen. 

The large housing development in Nicosia, described as the Strovolos 
project B (on which Pefkios Georgiades was one of the architects), 
will provide atractive townhouse-type homes for some 6,000 Greek 
Cypriots. These appear to be well-designed, solidly built structures, 
consistent with the tradition of sound construction practices which 
prevail throughout the island. 

While there are an estimated 50,000 Turkish Cypriots who have 
moved from the South to the Northern Turkish-occupied part of 
Cyprus, there do not appear to be any Turkish Cypriot refugee camps. 
Instead, the Turkish Cypriots are occupying dwellings abandoned by 
Greek Cypriots, there being far more such abandoned dwellings than 
there are Turkish Cypriots to occupy them. 

My general observation is that the Greek Cypriots are adjusting 
rapidly to their new environment. Their new homes, although small, 
are well constructed of masonry and concrete. A large building block 
plant has been established in the Dhekelia area to accommodate the 
new home construction. The Greek Cypriots, including refugees, are, 
for the most part, more resourceful, industrious, and more skillful 
than their Turkish counterparts. They have laid concrete floors even 
in the tent camps. Their places are neat, clean and orderly. 

However, when I stopped to visit with some of the Greek Cypriot 
refugees, and asked what they wished particularly to impart to me, 
as a Representative in the United States Congress, their uniform 
response was, "We want to return to our homes in the North." 

The refugee camp at Akhna presents a disheartening picture. Re- 
duced substantially in size from its maximum estimated population 
of 6000 homeless Greek Cypriots, some 1200 former residents of Akhna 
now reside in a tent village within sight of their unoccupied homes to 
which they cannot return because of the armed Turkish soldiers who 
have set up their line in the village. Most of these refugees are farmers, 
many of whom escaped with their large farm tractors and other mech- 
anized farm equipment. They have been waiting almost two years for 
the Turkish soldiers to retire. One farmer told me that 5 acres of his 
40-acre farm lie on the Greek side of the cease-fire line. The rest is in 
the Turkish zone. He would be fired on even if he tried to work the 
5-acre portion. So, he and several hundred other families wait and 
hope, perhaps in vain, to return to their homes. 

The unlikely return of Akhna to Greek Cypriot jurisdiction is based 
on the circumstance that the community lies on the border of the Bri- 
tish Sovereign Base of Dhekelia. The Turkish forces believe, with 
some possible justification, that the British may abandon their claims 
to Dhekelia in the near future, at which time (if the Turks continue to 
occupy the adjoining territory) they will simply move in and take 
over this 10 square mile area. 

In the course of my visit to the Turkish-occupied area including 
Kyrenia (renamed Gire by the Turks) and Lapithos, it appeared that 
the Turkish Cypriots were far less capable of improving or main- 
taining the properties taken over from the Greek Cypriots. Instead 



16 

of new construction, which characterizes the Greek-held area?, the 
buildings including most private dwellings in the Turkish-held zone 
appear to be neglected and in a state of deterioration. 

The fruit in the large citrus groves is rotting on the trees. Farm 
properties seem generally to be abandoned. Hotel and other business 
properties are in partial or total disuse. 

However, Bruno Kosheleff and I stopped to visit with a group of 
Turkish Cypriots in Laithos, and after the usual ceremonial and 
genuinely hospitable cup of Turkish coffee, one of the group, an ele- 
mentary school teacher, invited us to visit his home, While our visit 
took the teachers wife and three children by surprise, we were most 
impressed with the order and comfort which characterized this two- 
story, three-bedroom masonry residence which belonged previously 
(and may still belong) to a Greek Cypriot family. The teacher was 
quite fluent in English, as typically amiable and hospitable as all Cyp- 
riots appear to be, and very forthright. He explained that the Turkish 
Government had assigned the home to him, that he paid no rent, and 
that the interior furnishings belonged to him and his family. He drove 
a medium-size modern automobile that was parked alongside his home. 

The rest of the dwellings in the area seemed almost uninhabitable. 
Turkish Cypriots are just beginning to be moved into the dwellings 
vacated by the Greek Cypriots who formerly occupied them. But. in 
contrast to the active building and improvement programs which I 
witnessed in the Greek zone, there was no improvement program 
underway in the few Turkish communities I visited. 

PROSPECTS FOR MEANINGFUL PEACE NEGOTIATIONS 

In commenting upon the prospects of a durable peace in Cyprus 
through negotiations, T should emphasize that T am not trying to as- 
sume prerogatives that belong rightfully to our State Department and 
our diplomatic personnel, including onr capable and knowledgeable 
Ambassador William R. Crawford, Jr., with whom I conferred at 
length in Nicosia. 

]\ T or do I wish to attribute any of my observations to specific named 
individuals with whom I conferred in Washington, Geneva, Athens 
and Nicosia. 

The most negative, and at the same time the most prevalent, view 
advanced is that there will be no peace negotiations in the foreseeable 
future: that both Makarios and the Turks are satisfied with the status 
quo: that a settlement would diminish Makarios' authority and p 
tige: thai the Turks will never relinquish the advantage they have 
gained for the first time after centuries of subservience to a Greek 
( lypriot majority. 

Another negative view advanced from the Turkish side was that 
there can be no peace negotiations until M:ik.'irios is out. Since Arch- 
bishop ICakariofl appears to he solidly "in" as President of the Govern- 
ment of Cvprus, to suggest postponement of talks until Makarios is 
out, is tantamount to rejecting all peace negotiations. 

The principal obstacle to meaningful negotiations is the absence of 
authoritative spokesmen for the two rides; Neither the Greek Cypriot 
Chief Negotiator, Tassos Papadopoulos, nor the Turkish Cypriot 



17 

Chief Negotiator^ Umit Suleyman Oran, have any real authority to act 
for their respective sides. The only person capable of speaking for the 
Greek Cypriot Government is Archbishop Makarios. The Turkish 
military command appears to be the responsible spokesman for the 
Turkish Cypriot side. The Secretary General of the United Nations, 
Kurt TValdheim, is the acknowledged mediator. However, in response 
to my inquiry, it was suggested that a representative of the West Ger- 
man Government, presumably that nation's Foreign Minister, might 
be acceptable to both sides as the mediator. 

The Greek Cypriot leaders are reluctant to propose terms for a set- 
tlement. They contend that they have nothing to give, that all of the 
cards are in the hands of the Turks. However, there are definite indi- 
cations that the Greek Cypriot Government is prepared to accede to a 
permanent division of the Island into Turkish Cypriot and Greek 
Cypriot zones, a bi-zonal federation, with most powers vested in the 
two relatively autonomous states. 

Territorial adjustments, which would include the return of some 
communities now under Turkish control to the Greek Cypriot side, 
would seem to be an important element in any peace discussions. 

In short, it would appear to me that pressure should be applied to 
both sides to encourage resumption of negotiations with the U.N. Sec- 
retary General, or other acceptable person, as mediator, and predicated 
only on the assurance that both sides would be prepared to submit 
specific proposals for settlement, upon which continuing discussions 
and an ultimate agreement might be based. 

The Greek Cypriot officials, to a man, contend that an unequivocal 
ban on future military and economic aid to Turkey is the kind of pres- 
sure needed to bring the Turkish authorities to the negotiating table. 
The Turkish side argues with equal force that the Cyprus question 
must be dealt with independently of the questions of U.S. military and 
economic aid programs. 

It must certainly be recognized that pressures to settle the Cyprus 
problem should be applied by other countries than the United States, 
especially our other NATO allies, as well as the governments of the 
Middle East. The defense capacity of NATO and the protection of 
the Mediterranean by the U.S. 6th Fleet require the continued cooper- 
ation of the United States, Greece and Turkey. The Cypriot tinder box 
must not be permitted to embroil us in a major conflagration. 

As a supplement to this statement, I am attaching hereto as an ap- 
pendix the following: (a) cable from Ambassador "Crawford to Sec- 
retary of State Kissinger relative to my Cyprus visit, and (b) letter 
from Bruno Kosheleff providing chronology of my Cyprus visit. 

APPENDIXES 
Appendix A 

CABLE FROM AMBASSADOR CRAWFORD TO THE SECRETARY OF STATE 

1. Congressman McClory arrived May 18 at 1400 and left May 20 at 1000 lor 
return to Washington via Athens and New York. 

2. Embassy Economic/Commercial Officer met Codel at airport, took visitor to 
following places directly from airport : Aradhippou Housing Development for dis- 
placed Greek Cypriots (project was partially financed by USG aid program) ; 
Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area (SBA) U.K. Forces facilities; Akhna Forest with- 
in SBA where approx. 1,200 displaced Greek Cypriots are living In tents as well 
as permanent structures erected by the occupants; Town of Xylotymbou (GOC 



18 

enclave within SBA) where approx. 4,000 displaced Greek Cypriots live: view 
from within SBA of Turkish Army-controlled town of Akhna ; Town of Ormidhia 
(GOC enclave within SBA) where approx. 6,000 displaced Greek Cypriots re- 
side: Ammo Dump Refugee Camp inhabited by approx. 1,400 Greek Cypriot 
refugees living mainly in GOC-furnished "match-box" homes and a few tents: 
Town of Larnaca including visit of former Turkish Cypriot quarter. Codel 
made two stops to discuss general Cyprus topics with Greek Cypriot refugees, 
including at Akhna Forest where he spoke with group of nine farmers and at 
Xylotymbou where he interviewed Greek Cypriot housewife formerly of Lysi 
village. In Larnaca, Codel visited Turkish mosque presently being repaired by 
GOC. 

3. Evening dinner by Ambassador provided opportunity for Codel to meet 
and exchange views with Tassos Papadopulos, Speaker of House of Representa- 
tives and Greek Cypriot negotiator, and Minister of Labor Markos Spanos whose 
Ministry runs the Special Services for Refugees. 

4. May 19 Codel was taken on tour of UNFICYP headquarters, RAF Nicosia 
compound, and Nicosia International Airport. Codel had personal tour of re- 
cently opened First Cyprus International (Trade) Fair, then was taken to 
Presidential Palace destroyed during coup d'etat in July 1974. Codel spent 
half hour at Strovolos Refugee Camp where he interviewed several displaced 
persons and visited camp's kindergarten facilities. Codel then proceeded to 
site of Strovolos Housing Development presently under construction. Facilities 
will house Strovolos refugees by December this year. Project expected to be 
mostly financed from USG aid funds. 

5. After morning tour Congressman McClory accompanied by Ambassador 
called in succession on Turkish Cypriot Negotiator Onan, President Makarios 
and Foreign Minister. Key points of these conversations by septel. 

0. Codel lunched with Ambassador for briefing. Afternoon spent in Turkish 
North of Cyprus. Codel visited Kyrenia, Ambelia (overlooking Bellapais). 
viewed site of Turkish landings in summer 1974 and was shown T T SG radio sta- 
tion (closed) at Karavas. Codel visited Lapithos village where he interviewed 
several Turkish Cypriots formerly from Paphos District. At CODEL request 
Embassy escort took Codel to visit Greek Orthodox Church at Lapithos 
(damaged inside). 

7. May 20. On way to Larnaca for departure Codel was taken to Menoyia 
village where GOC public works laborers were clearing rubble from homes for- 
merly occupied by Turk Cypriots who in 1974 fled to Turkish-controlled North. 
Menoyia is being repaired for occupancy by Greek Cypriot refugees. 

ft. Congressman McClory did not meet with local press, made no public 
statements. 

AfRRKI B 

Embassy or ttie 
United States or America, 
Nicosia, Cyprus, May 21, 1970. 
Hon. Rorkrt McClOBT, 
House Committee on .Judiciary, 
U.8. House of R> -prexentntirrx, Washington, B.C. 

I>iak OOFWHMMAIV M< (Tory: It was my very real pleasure to Beit you 
and escort you during your brief s( ay in Cyprus. I cannot but feel that it was 
a memorable visit for you- -Cyprus is nothing if not interesting. 

Bnclosed is a copy of the Embassy telegram sent to the Department regarding 
your visit. The cable oncapsules the highlights of your tour of the island. As 
JTOIl requested I am listing tin- various places you visited in Chronological order: 

a few commenta are also Includi <i : 

MAY 18 

tarnaca Airport (arrival in Cyprus). 

Aradhippou Housing development. Larnaca IMstrict, occupied by approx. 

6.000 displaced Greek cypriots in 1,052 units. Project partly financed from 

[TfJO .I'd pn.-ram. OerupantH previously lived In tents and other unsatisfactory 
conditions. 

Dhekelia Sovereign Rase Area fMA), toward various British forces facilities. 

Xylotymbou refugee DSSBpS, both within Town of Xylotyml>ou (Government of 
Cyprus enclave within the BBA) and on SBA territory. Visited new home of 



19 

Greek Cypriot family formerly from Lysi Village (now in Turkish-controlled 
North). Housewife explained they financed and constructed their own house 
without Government or other outside assistance. 

The family receives monthly cash and food allowances, was also given blankets 
and a heater by the Government. Husband is a house painter, regularly em- 
ployed. Turkish coffee was served. 

Akhna Forest, within the SBA, where approx. 1,200 displaced Greek Cypriots 
are living in tents but also increasingly both in solid structure homes, self- 
financed by the occupants, and in prefabricated temporary structures financed 
and provided by the Government. Coffee-house chat with nine displaced farmers 
formerly from Akhna Town. 

Viewed from within the SBA the Town of Akhna which is now under Turkish 
control. Akhna used to have a Greek Cypriot population of approx. 2,000. The 
town has not been resettled but is under occupation by the Turkish Army. 

Ormedhia Refugee Camps and the Town of Ormedhia (Government of 
Cyprus enclave within the SBA). Ormedhia's population jumped three-fold in 
August-September 1974 as Greek Cypriots from Famagusta District sought 
safety within the SBA. Most of the tent camps in Ormedhia have been disbanded 
although the refugee camp overlooking the Town, situated on the hill known 
as the "Ammo Dump," contains approx. 1.400 displaced persons. More and more 
of the inhabitants are constructing solid-structure homes or erecting Govern- 
ment-provided prefab temporary structures. 

Larnaca Town, including a drive through the Turkish Quarter where for- 
merly approx. 3,500 Turkish Cypriots lived. The Quarter is now inhabited by 
approx. 3.000 Greek Cypriots, most of whom were displaced from the North in 
1974. Visited the Moslem mosque on the edge of the Turkish Quarters; the 
mosque was undergoing repairs to the damage caused in 1974. 

Dinner at the Ambassador's Residence (for list of attendees, see schedule 
prepared for CODEL visit). 

MAY 19 

Tour of Nicosia including Presidential Palace destroyed in coup d'etat of 
July 1974; U.N. Forces (UNFICYP) Headquarters and R.A.F. Nicosia Station; 
Nicosia International Airport (under UNFICYP control), closed since summer 
1974. 

First International Cyprus State Fair which opened May 14. Viewed several 
pavilions and extensive exhibit of locally-assembled KMC-trademark trucks 
and buses. 

Tour of Strovolos Refugee Camp, chat with several occupants as well as 
interview with Government Camp Administrator; visited camp's kindergarten 
facilities where children sang a "return to our homes" song. 

Drove around construction site of Strovolos Housing Development on outskirts 
of Nicosia. The complex, when completed later this year, will house the Strovolos 
Camp families. The complex, which will have 710 individuals apartments, will 
for the most be paid for by USG aid funds. 

Meeting with Turkish Cypriots negotiator Umit Suleyman Onan, accompanied 
by Ambassador. 

Meeting with His Beatitude Archbishop Makarios, President of the Republic 
of Cyprus, with Ambassador. 

Meeting with Government of Cyprus Foreign Minister Christophides, accom- 
panied by Ambassador. 

Drive around Turkish part of Nicosia in the Old City. 

Drive around Kyrenia including the port area. 

Viewed Bellapais Village from Ambelia. 

Drive to the beach site of the Turkish military landings in summer 1!>74 ; 
drove by the U.S. radio station (closed) at Karavas. 

Drove around former Greek Cypriot village of Lapithos, visited the Greek 
Orthodox Church (doors wide open, insides in disarray). Stopped at coffee 
house, discussed Cyprus problem with Turkish Cypriots who had moved to 
Lapithos since troubles of 1974. Interviewed a Turk Cypriot formerly from 
Kouklia (a mixed village in the Paphos District) and a Turk Cypriot primary 
school teacher recently assigned to teach at the Lapithos school. The teacher 
invited the visitors to his home where we were served a delicious sweetened 
grapefruit rind. 

Return to Kyrenia to meet artist — restaurantor S. Mustafa. 

Meze dinner in Nicosia with Embassy control officer and his wife. 



20 

MAT 20 

On the way to Larnaca, stopped at Menoyia Village which up to 1963 had been 
a mixed village, from 1963-1974 a Turkish village — deserted from summer of 
1 ( j74 to the present. A Public Works crew was clearing the village of rubble, in 
preparation for repair of the village for resettlement of Greek Cypriots displaced 
from the North. 

Larnaca Airport (departure for return to Washington via Athens and New 
York). 

Sincerely yours, 

Bruno Kosheleff, Economic/ Commercial Officer. 



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 

i urn mil i 



3 1262 09114 1324